Canine Cancer Testicular Tumors

Canine Cancer Testicular Tumors

What is Canine Cancer Testicular Tumors ?

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Description

90% of all malignancies developing in the male reproductive system are testicular tumors. Testicular cancers can also develop from other cell types such as hemangiomas, granulosa cell tumors, teratomas, sarcomas, embryonal carcinomas, gonadoblastomas, lymphomas, rete testis, and mucinous adenocarcinomas, though these three cell lineages account for the majority of testicular tumor development.

The three types of primary testicular tumors are interstitial cell tumors derived from Leydig interstitial cells (which secrete the male hormone testosterone), sertoli cell tumors derived from Sertoli sustentacular cells (which support the spermatogenesis process), and seminomas derived from the spermatic germinal epithelium (innermost layer of the testicle). These tumors develop close to one another, and the majority of testicular malignancies are made up of these tumors all together. A little over 40% of dogs have several primary testicular tumors. Additionally, it aids in the evaluation of local lymph nodes, distant metastases, and modifications to the prostate brought on by secondary hormonal imbalances. Regional draining lymph nodes, the liver, the pulmonary parenchyma, the kidneys, the spleen, the adrenals, the pancreas, the skin, the eyes, and the central nervous system could all be metastatic sites.

Breeds at higher risk include Boxer, German Shepherd, Afghan Hound, Weimaraner, and Shetland Sheepdog, even though intact canine males with a median age of 10 years are extremely inclined.

Causes

Sertoli cell tumors and seminomas are more common in dogs with retained or undescended testes (testes that do not descend into the scrotum). According to studies, cryptorchidism, which is the absence of one or both testicles from the scrotum, is one of the main risk factors for testicular cancer.

In addition to these, other factors that contribute to tumorogenesis include breed and exposure to environmental toxins. Seminomas were frequently observed in military service dogs that participated in the Vietnam War. Testicular abnormalities including testicular bleeding and epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis) have been documented by studies. These conditions include testicular degeneration (the most common cause of male infertility), orchitis (inflammation, swelling, and frequent infection of the testes), sperm granuloma (it is a lump of sperm that appears along the vasa deferentia or epididymedis in vasectomized men), and seminomas in these dogs. However, it is thought that exposure to substances like tetracycline, dioxin, or herbicides led to the development of tumors.

Symptoms

Several symptoms of testicular tumors include feminization, bilaterally symmetric alopecia, hyperpigmentation (darkening of the skin), a pendulous prepuce (suspended foreskin that covers the skin), gynecomastia (development of abnormally large mammary glands in men), galactorrhea (flow of milk from the breast regardless of childbirth), and atrophy of the contralateral normal testicle (excessive secretion of estrogen in the body). Additionally, hyperestrogenism may result in pancytopenia (a decrease in the number of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets), which has the potential to be fatal, bone marrow hypoplasia (underdevelopment or incomplete development of a tissue or organ), and blood dyscrasias (conditions in which any of the blood components are abnormal).

Hematuria (blood in the urine), spermatic cord torsion (twisting of the chord that delivers blood to a testicle), and hemoperitoneum are possible further symptoms (presence of blood in the peritoneal cavity).

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Detection methods

Fine-needle aspiration with cytology, rectal palpation, full blood count, abdominal ultrasound, and testicular ultrasound are some of the diagnostic procedures that may be used.

If there is any regional lymph node enlargement, it is shown by rectal palpation. It is essential to palpate the prostrate gland.

For the purpose of investigating hematologic problems linked to hyperestrogenism, such as leukopenia (a decrease in the number of white blood cells), thrombocytopenia (a relatively low platelet count), and anemia, a complete blood count is performed.

Doctors can locate retained testes in the inguinal area or abdominal cavity using an abdominal ultrasound scan. Rarely do primary cancers spread.

When looking for local and distant metastases, fine needle aspiration cytology is helpful.

And finally, testicular ultrasonography can assist distinguish between benign disorders like orchitis, epididimytis, and testicular torsion and malignant ones.

Treatment

The majority of initial testicular cancers do not spread. The preferred course of treatment for dogs with localized tumors is orchiectomy, which involves the removal of one or more testicles or testes along with scrotal ablation. Despite reports of systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy, primary testicular cancers seldom metastasis, hence there is typically not enough information on their therapeutic techniques.

Prognosis

The prognosis for dogs who undergo orchiectomy is favorable. The prognosis for canines with bone marrow hypoplasia brought on by hyperestrogenism, however, is uncertain. Some studies found that dogs given systemic chemotherapy had a median survival duration of 5 to 31 months.

By PetsCareTip.Com